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If there is no external voltage is connected to transistor, then there is no current flowing in a circuit, in other words all the electrical current equal to zero. So to use a transistor, we need to link in such a way, to obtain a current flow that we want.

Circuit below is an example of how the NPN transistors work

NPN transistors work
where:
  1. Emitter terminal is a negative polarity
  2. Collector terminal has a few volts more positive than emitter terminal
  3. Base terminal is 0.7 Volt more positive (see break down voltage) or greater.

With these conditions, we can see that:
  • A relatively small current flows through the base (IB)
  • Currents with a much greater value flow through the collector (IC)
  • Base current and collector current flowing out of transistor through the emitter.

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