In the switch circuit, transistor sometimes be in the inactive state, where there is no any current flows through it. These conditions is called transistor's cut off condition.

Figure A shows the state of the transistor in a cut off condition

transistor_cut_off
At other times when the transistor is in the fully active state, where there are only a relatively small potential difference between the emitter and collector terminals. These conditions is called transistor's saturated condition.

Figure B shows the state of the transistor in saturated condition.

transistor_saturation

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