Atom consists of nucleus and electrons orbiting the nucleus. The core itself consists of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons. The electrons surrounding the nucleus are negatively charged. Large load equal protons and electrons, ie e = 1.6 x 10-19 coulombs.

Semiconductor materials most widely used in the manufacture of electronic devices is the silicon (Si). The atom consists of nucleus and 14 electrons orbiting the nucleus. Essentially consists of 14 protons and 14 neutrons. 14 electrons orbiting the nucleus is divided into 3 groups. Group closest to the core consists of 2 electrons, the group furthest from the core consists of 4 electrons, while the third group of 8 electrons located between the two groups.

Each group also called atomic skin. So The skin has 3 atoms that contain electrons. Electrons located in the outermost shell are called valence electrons. Energy electrons in the skin closest to the core is the largest. Power is due to the attraction between positive charges in the nucleus with the negative charge of electrons.

Power is on the outer shell is the smallest, therefore the electrons are most easily separated from the core. If despite these electrons then move freely, so-called free electrons. The number of free electrons in a substance determines the nature of electricity. Movement or the movement of free electrons has resulted in the emergence of electrical energy.

When such a large amount of iron or metal, then a good electrical conductivity. This substance is then known as the conductor material. And if the number of free electrons in such a timber, then the substance is difficult to conduct electricity or insulating materials known.

The number of free electrons in a substance such as silicon (Si) and Germanium (Ge) is not as much as in metals but not the least in the insulation, the electrical conductivity of metal was not as good but better than insulators. Such substances are called semi-conductor materials.


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